Tag: opinion

Paula Rego – Portugese Painter

Paula Rego – Portugese Painter

I have recently been looking at the work of Paula Rego. At first, i didn’t think much of her paintings, they looked really odd and the dark colours made them look rather disturbing.


The old republican 2005

After learning more about her work and the stories behind them, I think she is remarkable! Her pieces are so powerful! Her paintings tell a story of her life and what she has been through. A use of nostalgia, by looking at scenes of her childhood and putting a story there. It is both a physic and emotional experience.

She says that if you paint pictures, it’s about whats inside of you and what comes out. We all have secrets and many of us show it in our work.

One series of paintings that stood out to me were the paintings of women having backstreet abortions.

Back then abortions were illegal in Portugal. There was a referendum to legalise it, but nobody had bothered to vote. She wanted to become involved, to make a change because they desperately needed proper clinics. So she did these explicit paintings of young girls to make people aware, because she felt people needed to know how important is was for women to have abotions legalised. She had the power to change the law.



Image Reference: https://www.abbothall.org.uk/abbot/artwork/paula-rego



Image Reference: https://uk.pinterest.com/baxte5/paula-rego/?lp=true

Paula Rego herself, had a hard life. She had back street abortions herself and men at that time didn’t care much for women. Her father suffered from depression and her mother didn’t teach her much. Over the years she had lost her innocence.

One quote i liked from Paula Rego was:

“If that person understands your work very well, they understand you really well”.



Epistemology – The Theory Of Knowledge

Epistemology – The Theory Of Knowledge

Today I’m going to talk about the philosophical context of the word Epistemology. The word itself comes from two greek words: “Episteme” which means knowledge and understanding and “Logia” which means science and study.

In a philosophical context, epistemology is the study of knowledge in general.

Examples of epistemology questions are:

  • What does knowledge mean?
  • How does a person get to know something?
  • What is the basis for true knowledge?

Some say knowledge is justified or true belief. It means that a person must be able to justify the claim but the claim itself must be true and the person must believe it.

An example of that is,  a person may say  “I know that people have walked on the moon”.

For this to be true knowledge, it must be possible to justify that claim. It must also be a fact and the person must actually believe that people have walked on the moon.

To justify a belief you need evidence, the evidence must be of good quality, and should also be logical and reasonable evidence.


Over time there have been two major branches of philosophical epistemology.

Epiricism is one. It means that true knowledge is primarily founded on input from our senses. It’s important to refer to experience and observations when beliefs and claims are justified and proven.

The second branch is rationalism which is to emphasise reason rather than experience and observation. The rational and logical human mind is the source for new knowledge not the material world around us.

Epistemology has a huge impact on the scientific academics, given its importance for discussing the limits and possibilities of reporting new knowledge. Other academic departments have more or less an inherit interest in issues of knowledge.


So, in a short overview Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. I have also added some videos to help give a greater understanding.




References: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/epistemology


Zaha Hadid – Architect

Zaha Hadid – Architect

Zaha Hadid is a famous architect. Her architecture is known to perhaps contribute to a better life.

She gave us a new view on architecture, which was less confined by gravity, and more to do with slipping. Rock movements inspired her. Her designs opened the eyes of clients, and the public of what space could be. For example, She had completed  the  maxi building in Rome in 2009. It took 11 years to complete. It was Zahis latest project and she won the best building prize.


The parallel sweeping lines on the ceiling were meant for paintings to hang from, this was something other people had not thought of and showed how we can make use of space and with its serpent like structures, it woke up the neighbourhood and brought back the barouque culture feel back into Rome.

This design was very important to Zaha because it was more handmade rather than computer based. She loved the old baroque feel to it which is a sign of nostalgia. Bringing the old look into the present.

She had a fascination with the Russian construction and nature, following the tradition of making buildings people are wanting.


Zaha had a total dedication to her art, she gave up her family, her romantic affairs etc. She completely devoted herself to her projects and the fact that she was an Iraq woman makes her the most impressive and inspirational female architect of today.


Her first completed project was made up of sharp lines with a futuristic look. It was very abstract. The Vitra building, was built as a fire station. It was one of her earliest works.

Week 3 - Exercise 02.jpg1200px-Vitra_fire_station,_full_view,_Zaha_Hadid.jpg

During her time as an architecture, just like any artist; she had many aborted projects, lots of designs don’t get realized. She had more than 60 projects before she died. She had a style that pushed the boundaries, her legacy was very important. Her building designs were so unique and the legacy of how people will use her buildings is also unique, the experience of being in one of her buildings is apparently so unlike other buildings. They have the idea of movement and shape and shows an advancement in technology.


reference: https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/10018727.article?




Innocence Part 2

Innocence Part 2

I’ve recently been reading William Blakes “Songs of Innocence and Experience”. It’s a novel that includes contemporary impressions, later nineteenth-century comments and recent studies. Each casebook brings together the best of modern criticism, with a few earlier reviews and comments. Each quote gives a heightened sense of the interest and vitality of the work theme under discussion, and of the value of a critical response.

The ‘Nurse’s Song is a poem i was quite interested in discussing with you.

“When the voices of children are heard on the green
And laughing is heard on the hill,
My heart is at rest within my breast
And everything else is still.


‘Then come home, my children, the sun is gone down
‘And the dews of night arise;
‘Come, come, leave off play, and let us away
‘Till the morning appears in the skies.’
‘No, no, let us play, for it is yet day
‘And we cannot go to sleep;
‘Besides, in the sky the little birds fly
‘And the hills are all cover’d with sheep.’
‘Well, well, go and play till the light fades away
‘And then go home to bed.’
The little ones leaped and shouted and laugh’d
And all the hills ecchoed

Theres a review of the poem in the book which discusses that the immediate peculiarity of the poem is the absence of metaphor. Which is a clue to it’s unique structure. Metaphors aren’t needed, because theres no web of correspondence to be established in the poem. Correspondence it shows us is that the birds and the children are both small.

‘Besides, in the sky the little birds fly’.

It says that “Simplicity of this kind means the absence of elements of individual experience, such as it’s normally the function of poetry to control, but which are present in the simplest lyrics.

The laughter of the children does not ‘rejoice’ the hill, it is merely ‘heard on’ it. The hill does not ‘feed’ the sheep, it is merely ‘covered with’ them. The use of adjectives almost inevitably introduces the personality of the observer, but here the only adjective used is ‘little’, and it is applied to small objects. This is characteristic of the Songs of Innocence as a whole. The grass is simply ‘green’; the fleece of the lamb is simply ‘wooly’. This type of simplicity has been carefully achieved.

Both the child and the lamb are types of innocent love, the all embracing charity which does not pick and choose, but loves first and makes the particular discovery later. Confront the lamb with a wolf, and it becomes an image of more than love and less than innocence.

The book then goes on to say that “In the world which Blake has created by a restriction of the christian and pastoral traditions, there are no beasts of prey or lust, disease is unknown, and old age only means access of dignity, not the approach of death. There is no need to exclude sorrow, for sorrow is another distress, like joy in another happiness, is an expression of innocence so long as it does not lead to fearful questioning”.

“can i see another woe,
And not be in sorrow too?”.

Is as true to the note of innocent love as:

“Thou dost smile,

I sing the while”.

The images we imagine from the poem are immediately related, moment by moment, as they occur by the poem, instead of developing a personal complex of impressions, it presents a vision of things which relates them without reference to past and future, and is therefore impersonal.

It is this kind of impersonality which Blake terms innocence, and the note of innocent love which sounds throughout the songs is similarly impersonal. The lamb is simply loved for being the lamb: it is not a peculiar lamb, but any lamb which is loved. In nearly all the songs, natural objects are made to sympathise with human feelings.

The attribution of human feelings is linked with the attribution of the most obvious physical characteristics.


Ref: William Blake: Songs of Innocence and Experience
Image: William Bouguereau, L’innocence (Innocence), 1893.


Decay & Power Part 2

Decay & Power Part 2

So today i watched a talk by David Polka, a street artist. I thought about his opinion on how street artists portray death and decay and i think that he has an interesting opinion and i agree with his thoughts and feelings on this subject.



He says that cities and olden buildings express decay. They speak for the passage of time and human presence. They’re inspiring with there cool textures and the way that we can relate to architecture. You can see all the processes that had happened, you can see the contrast of seeing man-made structures return to the way they were from. It opens up new questions when you see the processes happen, like overgrown plants etc.

He says that as a graffiti artist he wants to leave a mark on the world. We all do because if we don’t, we feel lifeless. Graffiti art is highly controlled visual advertising on blank walls. It makes people feel that they can give an opinion when they look at it because its not like going to the gallery, its more open and it makes people think. This is an example of the power art can give and another opinion on decay.

If you’d like to watch the video i have been referring to, you can watch it here:


Nostalgia Part 2

Recently, i watched a talk from Bruce Mcall on nostalgia, a future that will never happen.

Bruce Mcall is a commercial artist for the New Yorker. He says that in his work, he uses something called  “Retro-futurism”. Which is looking back to see how yesterday views tomorrow, which he says is always wrong.

The 1930’s in his opinion, was the peak time for that because of the depression and it was a way to get away from the present and to look at the future, which was always optimistic. They thought that technology was going to help them get through it.

78724_800x600.jpgA retro-future that never happened — full of flying cars, polo-playing tanks and the RMS Tyrannic, “The Biggest Thing in All the World.”

He then talks about something called “Techno archaeology”, an example of this is his poster named “The Hindenburg” which was from 1947 looking at the day all american families have them.

He goes on to talk about “Faux Nostalgia” which is the yearning for times that never happened.

Wing dining-1.png

Bruce Mcall says that nostalgia is the most utterly useless human emotion. I don’t totally agree but I see the point. Nostalgia if taken to extreme becomes a mild case of depression and self-deception. The past is never as great or as bad as it seems and nor will the future be as wonderful or as terrible as we can imagine.


A link to Broce Mcall’s talk on this https://youtu.be/fOk6HQaNpdE








Nostalgia is when we fondly remember the past, or who we are or used to be as we’re always changing. Nostalgia orbits around our identity; who we are today, wasn’t who we were 5 years ago and it’s about us, our memories and who we are now.

Nostalgia is when a person that remembers a specific memory from the past, or connecting to our past whilst still continuing to change as a person. We normally remember, or get nostalgic over good memories, not bad memories.

Music is an example of something we can get nostalgic about. Listening to a certain song can bring back different memories or connect us to the people around us listening to the same song.

We don’t always understand other people or get on with others but when (for example) two people are together and music is played, their feelings and emotions become more similar than if they sit together in silence or use words with no rhythm, which is to do with our internal desire to fit in and as a consequence of our impressive ability to communicate and be social, but also happens when we are on our own.

Nostalgia is a personal experience – the uniqueness of an event or the conflict inherent in it can produce some of our strangest memories, it can also bring up difficult emotions and memories.

References: https://youtu.be/coGfGmOeLjE